Inflammation is one of the responses against infection and is triggered by cell-signaling protein molecules such as cytokines which can be either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote inflammation, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines reduce inflammation. Inflammation is crucial to eradicate foreign particles, including bacteria and virus, and to promote wound healing. Inflammation is beneficial in the initial stage in acute inflammatory response, however sometimes inflammation can be self-perpetuating and leads to uncontrolled inflammation.

Ajoene has been shown to induce an anti-inflammatory response to alleviate inflammation.

Ajoene’s anti-inflammatory properties were shown recently by Lee and colleagues in Korea (2012), where ajoene, especially Z-ajoene, inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in LPS-activated macrophages.